The wall mainly includes load-bearing wall and non-load-bearing wall, which mainly plays the role of enclosure and separation of space. The wall of a building with load-bearing structure is a combination of load-bearing and enclosure. The role of the wall of a building with skeleton structure system is to enclose and separate the space. The wall should have sufficient strength and stability, and have the ability of heat preservation, heat insulation, sound insulation, fire prevention and waterproof.
There are many kinds of wall, single material wall, composite material wall. It is an important task of building structure to design a reasonable wall scheme by considering factors such as enclosure, load-bearing, energy saving and aesthetics.
Walls are an important part of a building. Its role is to bear or enclose, separate space.
(1) It has sufficient bearing capacity and stability
(2) With heat preservation and heat insulation performance
(3) Sound insulation performance
(4) Meet the requirements for fire prevention
(5) Moisture-proof and water-proof requirements
(6) Requirements for building industrialization
(I) Structural requirements:
1. Transverse wall bearing scheme
2. Longitudinal wall bearing scheme
3. Mixed load-bearing scheme for vertical and horizontal walls
4. Semi-frame bearing scheme
5. Wall bearing capacity and stability.
6. Mixed wall and column bearing (inner frame structure)
(II) Functional requirements:
1. Thermal insulation requirements
2 Heat insulation Requirements
3. Sound insulation requirements
4. Other requirements (fire-proof, moisture-proof and waterproof building industrialization requirements)
Classified by wall material
1. Brick wall
The bricks used for walls are common clay bricks, porous clay bricks, hollow clay bricks, burnt ballast bricks and so on. Clay bricks are made of clay and are divided into red and black bricks. Cinder bricks are steamed with hard slag from blast furnace and lime.
2. Aerated concrete block wall
Aerated concrete is a kind of light material, its composition is cement, sand, grinding slag, fly ash and so on, with aluminum powder as foaming agent, after steaming. Aerated concrete has the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation and good thermal insulation performance. This material is often used for non-load-bearing partition walls and filling walls of frame structures.
3. Stone wall
Stone is a kind of natural material, mainly used in mountainous areas and stone producing areas. It is divided into chaotic stone wall, whole stone wall and package stone wall.
4. Sheet wall
Plate to reinforced concrete plate, aerated concrete plate, glass curtain wall is also such.
5. Integral wall
The whole wall made on site within the frame, without brick joints, plate joints, the overall performance is outstanding, the main material is light aggregate reinforced concrete, the operation process is shotcrete process, the overall strength is slightly higher than other structures, coupled with reasonable site structure design, especially suitable for earthquake prone areas, large span plant construction and large commercial center partition.
Sort by wall position
The wall is generally divided into two parts according to the location of the external wall and the internal wall, and each part has two vertical and horizontal directions, so that a total of four kinds of walls are formed, namely, the longitudinal external wall, the transverse external wall (also known as the gable), the longitudinal internal wall and the transverse internal wall.
Classified by wall force
The wall can be divided into load-bearing wall and non-load-bearing wall according to the different stress conditions of the structure. Where directly bear the upper roof, floor from the load wall called load-bearing wall; The walls that do not bear the upper load are called non-load-bearing walls, which include partition walls, filling walls and curtain walls. The partition wall plays the role of separating indoor space, which should meet the requirements of sound insulation and fire prevention, and its weight should be borne by the floor or beam; The filling wall is generally filled between the column walls of the frame structure; Curtain walls are lightweight exterior walls suspended between exterior frames or floors. The external infill walls and curtain walls are subjected to wind and seismic loads.
Classified by wall structure
According to the different way of construction, it can be divided into solid wall, empty wall, composite wall. Solid wall: the wall without any gap built by single material (brick, stone, concrete and reinforced concrete, etc.) and composite material (reinforced concrete and aerated concrete layered composite, clay brick and coke slag layered composite, etc.); A cavity is left in an empty wall, such as an empty bucket wall. Composite wall: A wall made of two or more materials
Wall thickness determination
The thickness of brick wall is based on the length of our country standard clay brick as unit, the specification of our country’s current clay brick is 240mm×115mm×53mm (length × width × thick). Together with the ash seam thickness of 10mm, the brick specifications form a relationship of length: width: thickness =4∶2∶1. At the same time, there are 4 bricks long, 8 bricks wide and 16 bricks thick in 1m3 masonry, so the amount of bricks used in 1m3 masonry is 4×8×16=512 pieces, and the amount of mortar used is 0.26m3. The current wall thickness is determined by brick length, which is commonly used as follows:
Half brick wall: the drawing marks 120mm, the actual thickness is 115mm;
A brick wall: the drawing marks 240mm, the actual thickness is 240mm;
One brick half wall: the drawing marks 370mm, the actual thickness is 365mm;
Two brick wall: the drawing marks 490mm, the actual thickness is 490mm;
3/4 brick wall: The drawing marks 180mm, but the actual thickness is 180mm.
Other walls, such as reinforced concrete slab walls, aerated concrete walls, etc., should comply with the provisions of modulus. When reinforced concrete slab wall is used as load-bearing wall, its thickness is 160mm or 180mm; When used as a partition wall, its thickness is 50mm. Aerated concrete walls are often used for peripheral parapet walls of 200mm ~ 250mm, and for partition walls of 100mm ~ 150mm.
The method of building brick wall refers to the arrangement and combination of bricks in masonry. In order to ensure the strength and stability of the wall, it should meet the basic requirements of horizontal and vertical, full mortar, staggered joints and lapping, avoiding through joints and so on.
One way, one way
This laying method is a layer of laying bricks, a layer of laying bricks, alternate arrangement, repeated combination. In the corner part to add 3/4 bricks (commonly known as seven points) for transition. This method is characterized by good lap joint, no through joint and strong integrity, so it is widely used.
In this method, each skin is lined with bricks. Upper and lower leather left and right lap for half brick, it is only suitable for half brick wall.
It’s in sequence
This method of laying is made by alternating lining and tiding bricks. The wall thickness of this method is at least one brick wall. It has good integrity and the wall is beautiful.
This kind of building method usually has three shun one Ding and five shun one Ding, its practice is every three PI shun brick or five PI shun brick plus a pidding brick overlapping. The problem with the method is that there is a through joint.
When the door and window openings are opened on the wall, in order to support the upper part of the hole of the masonry from the various loads, and these loads to both sides of the wall, often set on the door and window openings of the beam, that is, lintel. The load on the lintel is generally distributed in a triangle. For convenient calculation, the triangle can be converted into 1/3 of the width of the hole. The lintel only bears the load of the upper 1/3 of the width of the hole, so the section of the lintel is not big, and the reinforcement in the beam is less. Lintel can be generally divided into reinforced concrete lintel, brick arch (flat arch, arc arch and semicircular arch), reinforced brick lintel and so on.
The lower part of the window opening should be provided with a sill. Window sills are divided into cantilevered window sills and non-cantilevered window sills. According to the installation position of the window, internal window sills and external window sills can be formed. The exterior window sills are to prevent water from accumulating at the bottom of the window holes and flowing indoors. The inner window sill is to eliminate the condensation on the window, to protect the indoor wall, and store things, put POTS and so on. The bottom of the window cornice, should be made into an acute Angle or semicircular groove (called “dripping”), easy to drain water, so as not to pollute the wall.
The part under the outer wall near the outdoor floor is called the leg. The role of the foot is to prevent the ground water, the eaves of the rain drop on the wall erosion, so as to protect the wall, ensure indoor dry, improve the durability of the building; At the same time, and beautify the appearance of the building. Stile is often made with cement mortar, brush stone or increase the thickness of the wall. The height of the leaser foot is generally the height difference between the indoor floor and the outdoor floor, and the height size of the leaser foot can also be increased according to the needs of the facade.
Damp proof course
The purpose of installing a moisture-proof course in the wall body is to prevent the moisture in the soil from rising along the wall body and the ground water at the stile part from affecting the wall body. Its function is to improve the durability of buildings, keep indoor dry health. The height of the moisture-proof course should be between the indoor floor and the outdoor floor, with the elevation equivalent to -0.060m, and the middle of the ground cushion is the best. There are horizontal moisture proof course and vertical moisture proof course; According to different material practices can be divided into waterproof mortar moisture-proof course, felt moisture-proof course and concrete moisture-proof course. Waterproof mortar moisture-proof course is generally used in seismic fortification areas.
The loose water refers to the drainage slope near the lower part of the strangle foot. Its function is to quickly remove rainwater dripping from the eaves and prevent the building from sinking because of water infiltration into the foundation. The width of the water should be slightly larger than the eave size, and not less than 600mm. The slope of water dispersion is generally about 5%. The commonly used materials for dispersing water are concrete, brick, slag, etc.
When the wall stability is reduced due to the influence of concentrated load, opening and earthquake, it is necessary to consider the reinforcement measures for the wall.
Add pilasters and door battlements
When there is a concentrated load on the wall between the Windows, and the wall thickness is not enough to bear the load; Or when the length and height of the wall exceeds a certain limit and affects the stability of the wall, pilasters are often added in appropriate parts of the wall body to improve the stiffness of the wall. When the door is opened on the wall and the door is opened at the corner of the two walls or the junction of the T-wall, in order to facilitate the placement of the door frame and ensure the stability of the wall, it is necessary to set the door stack on the corner of the door against the wall or on the side of the T-wall.
Ring beam setting
The ring beam is a continuous closed beam arranged along the outer wall and part of the inner transverse wall. The function of the ring beam with the floor can enhance the spatial stiffness and integrity of the floor plan, reduce the wall cracking caused by the uneven settlement of the foundation, and form the skeleton together with the constructional column to improve the earthquake resistance.
As the brick masonry is brittle material, the seismic ability is poor, so in the earthquake fortification zone above 7 degrees, the total height of the brick structure building, the transverse wall spacing, the setting of the ring beam and the local size of the wall, are put forward some restrictions and requirements, must be considered in accordance with the seismic design code. In addition, in order to enhance the overall stiffness and stability of the building, it is also required to improve the strength grade of masonry mortar and use reinforced concrete constructional columns if necessary. Reinforced concrete structural columns are set from a structural point of view, generally located in the four corners of the building, the intersection of the inner and outer walls, stairwell, elevator room and some longer wall middle. The constructional columns must be closely connected with the ring beams and walls to form a spatial framework for the entire building. Thus enhance the stiffness of the building, improve the strain capacity of the wall, so that the wall from brittleness into a good ductility structure, do crack but not fall. During construction, the wall must be built first, and the cast-in-place reinforced concrete column body will be built segment by segment as the wall rises.
Deformation joints include expansion joints, settlement joints and shock-proof joints. Its function is to ensure that the house can have some free expansion in temperature change, uneven settlement of the foundation or earthquake, in order to prevent wall cracking and structural damage.
That is, the temperature gap, the main function is to prevent the cracks caused by temperature changes in the house. Generally, starting from the top of the foundation, gaps are reserved along the length direction of the building every certain distance to divide the building into several sections. Because the foundation is buried underground, it is less affected by the temperature, so it does not consider its expansion and deformation. The width of the expansion joint is 20mm ~ 30mm, and the joint should be filled with thermal insulation material, and the spacing is clearly stipulated in the structural specification.
When the height, load and structural form of the adjacent parts of the house are very different and the foundation is weak, the house may produce uneven settlement, resulting in some weak parts cracking. The role of settlement joint is to prevent the uneven subsidence of the building, generally disconnected from the bottom of the foundation (which is also the main difference between the expansion joint and settlement joint), and through the full height of the building. Both sides of the settlement joint shall have foundation and brick walls. The setting principle of settlement joint is:
(1) the complex plane and shape transition of the building;
(2) Large differences in building height and load;
(3) appropriate parts of excessively long buildings;
(4) There are significant differences in compressibility of foundation soil;
(5) Obvious differences in foundation treatment methods;
(6) Different foundation types of buildings and the junction of phased building.
In order to prevent the earthquake damage to the house, the application of seismic joint will be divided into several simple shape, the structure stiffness uniform independent part. The width of the crack is determined according to the height of the building and the seismic intensity of the area, and the minimum crack size is 50mm ~ 70mm. There should be walls on both sides of the seam, and the gap should start from the top of the foundation and run through the full height of the building. In earthquake-proof areas, when the building needs to set expansion joints or settlement joints, it should be treated as shock-proof joints.
Pressed metal wall
Pressure type metal plate wall refers to the use of a variety of thin steel plate (or other metal plate), after rolling cold bending forming for a variety of cross-section of the wall, has the characteristics of light and high strength, insulation type and non-insulation type.
Aerated concrete walls
There are blocks, exterior wall panels and partition panels. Aerated concrete block wall without effective measures, shall not be used in long-term immersion, dry and wet alternating parts, chemical erosion environment, product surface is often in a high temperature environment above 80℃. When used as an exterior wall, the outer surface should be a protective veneer. Aerated concrete walls can be used as load-bearing walls and non-load-bearing walls. The layout of wallboard adopts three forms according to the characteristics of building structure: horizontal layout wallboard, vertical layout wallboard and assembled large board.
Mainly gypsum keel plasterboard, light steel keel plasterboard, reinforced gypsum hollow slab, etc., suitable for middle and low grade civil and industrial buildings in the non-load-bearing internal partition wall.
In addition to the above walls, there are cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete walls, glass curtain walls and partition walls of various materials and forms.
Exterior wall decoration
Exterior wall decoration includes veneer, plaster and spray.
Veneer class is in the outer surface of the wall paving granite, marble, ceramic brocade brick (also known as Mosaic) and other decorative materials. The paving method of marble slab is to embed flat iron hooks in the wall and column, make grooves on the top surface of the plate, hook grooves with flat iron hooks, and pour cement mortar in the middle. Another method is to reserve steel hooks in the middle of the wall column, fix the steel mesh with steel hooks, bind the marble slab with steel wire on the steel mesh, and then pour cement mortar in the gap. Ceramic tiles are mainly mounted with cement mortar. The face brick is mainly pasted with polymer cement mortar (adding a small amount of 107 glue to the cement mortar) and special adhesive (such as 903 glue).
External wall plaster is divided into ordinary plaster and decorative plaster two categories. Common plastering includes the use of cement mortar on the exterior walls. The decorative plastering includes the processing of artificial stone, artificial stone, artificial stone chop and bush-drawing ash.
Spray type finish construction is simple, cheap, and has a certain decorative effect. In addition, the appearance of the brick wall is only pointed, not for other decoration of the wall called water wall.
Interior wall decoration
The interior wall decoration can be generally divided into four categories, namely, veneer, plaster, spray and pasting.
Veneer including marble SLATE, prefabricated water grinding SLATE, ceramic tiles and other materials, mainly used in the hall and decoration requirements, high health requirements of the room; Spraying practices include painting, spraying and other practices; Paperhanging includes plastic wallpapers and wallpapers. One is to apply plastic coating on the base paper or cloth, and the other is to press a layer of plastic wallpapers on the base paper or cloth.
Quantity of work
The division of the brick foundation and the wall body takes the floor of the first floor as the boundary, the floor below the design interior as the foundation, and the wall body above; For example, when the wall body and the foundation are two different materials, the dividing line is according to the different materials.
(1) Wall volume, concrete wall, brick wall
(2) Concrete wall formwork
(3) The price of concrete wall is increased when the height exceeds 3.6m
(4) Inside and outside scaffolding
Calculation method of wall quantity
(1) Wall volume = length × width × height – door and window opening volume – wall lintel – wall column – wall beam, etc
① Solid brick wall, hollow brick wall and stone wall are calculated by volume according to the size of the design diagram. Deduct the volume of door and window openings, passing holes, empty rings, reinforced concrete columns, beams, ring beams, cantilevered beams, lintels and recessed wall niches, pipe slots, heating slots and fire hydrant boxes. It does not deduct the volume of beam head, plate head, purlin head, cushion wood, wooden corrugated head, wood along the edge, wood brick, door and window head, reinforced steel bar, wood reinforcement, iron parts, steel pipe and a single area within 0.3m2 hole. Protruding wall waist line, eaves, roof, window sill line, tiger brick, window and window set volume also does not increase, protruding wall brick stack into the wall volume.
a Wall length: Outer wall is calculated by center line, inner wall is calculated by net length.
b Wall height:
i Exterior wall: inclined (sloping) roof without cornice canopy shall be counted as roof panel bottom; There are roof truss and outdoor canopy is calculated to the bottom of the roof truss string plus 200mm; If there is no canopy, add another 300mm to the bottom string of the roof truss. If the eave width exceeds 600mm, it shall be calculated according to the actual building height. Flat roof counts as reinforced concrete slab bottom.
ii Interior wall: if located at the lower chord of the roof truss, it shall be counted as the bottom of the lower chord of the roof truss; If there is no roof truss, add 100mm to the bottom of the ceiling; Those with reinforced concrete floor partitions shall be counted as the top of the floor; If there is a frame beam, count to the bottom of the beam.
iii Parapet: from the top of the parapet to the upper surface of the roof panel
iv Inner and outer gables: calculated by their average height.
v Enclosure: The height shall be calculated to the lower surface of the ceiling (if there is concrete ceiling) and the enclosure column shall be incorporated into the volume of the enclosure.
② The cast-in-place concrete wall is calculated by volume according to the size shown in the design. Without deducting the volume of the steel bars and embedded iron parts in the member, and the volume of the door and window openings and the single area of 0.3m2, the palletizing and protruding wall parts are incorporated into the wall volume calculation.
a Reinforced concrete walls shall be subtracted from the volume occupied by the openings.
The height of b wall is calculated according to the height of the epithelium of the lower plate and the lower skin of the lower plate.
c When the concrete wall and the column are connected together, if the concrete column does not protrude outside the wall, the volume of the concrete column is incorporated into the wall; If the concrete column protrudes from the wall, the length of the concrete wall shall be calculated to the side of the column, and the column connected to the wall shall be calculated separately. d When the concrete wall is connected with the beam, if the concrete beam does not protrude outside the wall and there is no door or window (or hole) under the beam, the volume of the concrete beam is incorporated into the wall calculation; If the concrete beam protrudes outside the wall or has doors or Windows (or openings) under the beam, the concrete wall and beam should be counted separately.
⑵ Formwork of concrete wall = exposed area of wall + side wall area of entrance.
Tianjin 2004 Calculation rules: Concrete, reinforced concrete formwork and support according to the design and construction drawings of concrete volume calculation.
(3) The increment of concrete wall height over 3.6m = the total volume of concrete wall height over 3.6m.
(4) The internal and external scaffolding is calculated according to the vertical projection area of the wall. The length of the external wall scaffold shall be calculated by the outer edge line of the external wall, and the length of the internal wall scaffold shall be calculated by the net length of the internal wall. The height is calculated as the total height from the natural floor to the top of the wall.
The difficulty of wall engineering quantity calculation
Before calculating the wall, the corresponding deduction must be calculated. For example, if the width of the column or beam is larger than the wall, the volume of the column or beam embedded in the wall must be taken into account when calculating the column or beam.
⑵ The template is similar.
(3) When calculating concrete wall, it is necessary to calculate doors and Windows (or holes) on the wall and non-doors and Windows (or holes) wall.
Calculation of layered wall
(1) When the thickness of the layered wall and the eccentricity are different, the center line of the wall should be calculated respectively.
(2) When deducting the stratified wall, it is necessary to deduct the stratified wall.
⑶, parapet wall: from the surface of the roof board to the top of the parapet (if there is a concrete roof to the bottom surface)